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Recommended Resources: “The Power of Reading”

The Power of ReadingIf you need any persuading when it comes to the value of reading aloud to children, and encouraging them to read on their own, look no further than The Power of Reading by the noted linguist and researcher Stephen Krashen.

A compact and accessible book, Krashen summarizes decades of research and makes a thoroughly convincing case for putting the highest priority on promoting a love of reading and a print-rich environment. If there’s one book I would consider a “must-read” for parents when it comes to the development of their children’s language ability—whether those children are bilingual or monolingual—it would be The Power of Reading.

The answer is simple

I first read the The Power of Reading (the first edition) while teaching English to bilingual children at Hiroshima International School and it really opened my eyes—in fact, it shaped the whole way I set up my classroom space and worked with my students. If, as Krashen argued, “the impact of direct instruction [on literacy development] is typically small or nonexistent” and “reading is the only way we become good readers, develop a good writing style, an adequate vocabulary, advanced grammar, and the only way we become good spellers,” then the answer to nurturing good English ability was more simple than I had imagined.

Don’t get me wrong. Direct instruction has its place, when it truly seems useful, but ever since I read The Power of Reading, I have emphasized the following five things with my students and with my own children. (Below each one I quote Krashen.)

Five steps to literacy

1. Read aloud to them regularly.

Children who are read to at home read more on their own. Reading aloud has, apparently, multiple effects on literacy development. …it has an indirect effect—hearing stories and discussing stories encourages reading, which in turn promotes literacy development. There is a great deal of evidence that hearing stories has a direct impact on literacy development as well. In controlled studies, it has been shown that children who are read to regularly for several months make superior gains in reading comprehension and vocabulary.

 2. Flood their environment with suitable reading material.

The research supports the commonsense view that when books are readily available, when the print environment is rich, more reading is done. A rich print environment in the home is related to how much children read; children who read more have more books at home.

3. Model a love of books and reading.

Children read more when they see other people reading, both at school and at home.

4. Encourage “light reading.”

Perhaps the most powerful way of encouraging children to read is by exposing them to light reading [comic books, series books, magazines]. Several case histories support the view that light reading is the way many, if not most, children learn to read and develop a taste for reading.*

There is evidence that light reading can serve as a conduit to heavier reading. It can help readers not only develop the linguistic competence for harder reading but can also develop an interest in books.

5. Create opportunities for reading.

Given extensive free reading…readers will acquire nearly all of the conventions of writing. With enough reading, good grammar, good spelling, and good style will be part of them, absorbed or acquired effortlessly.

Bathe them in books

For the most part, then, I just bathe children in books and literacy, and over the years the results have been very gratifying: not only have my students and my own kids developed good all-around English ability, they’ve grown to enjoy reading and books. Some may read with more enthusiasm than others—every child is different, after all—but all of them have gained a positive view of books and literacy that will serve them well throughout their lives.

At the conclusion of The Power of Reading, Krashen sums up his argument in this way:

My conclusions are simple. When children read for pleasure, when they get “hooked on books,” they acquire, involuntarily and without conscious effort, nearly all of the so-called “language skills” many people are so concerned about: They will become adequate readers, acquire a large vocabulary, develop the ability to understand and use complex grammatical constructions, develop a good writing style, and become good (but not necessarily perfect) spellers. … When we read, we really have no choice—we must develop literacy. We rarely find well-read people who have serious problems with grammar, spelling, and so on. They write acceptably well because they can’t help it; they have subconsciously acquired good writing style as well as the conventions of writing.

*Some of my fondest memories from childhood are reading stacks of comic books, like “Archie” and “Richie Rich”!

How about you? What do you think of the argument Stephen Krashen makes in “The Power of Reading”?

7 Responses

  1. I wished I’d become a good reader when I was still young! I just remember that I was not so good on other subjects that made me use much of my time in working on my assignments. Another thing was, no one from the family loves reading! No one reads book, a comic or even a magazine! We did not have that lifestyle! So now, even I’m already in my 30’s, I will stop putting the blame to anyone! Hahaha! But I consider myself as a light reader, though, I think. I like to read not so long information about anything that interests me! And now, is it correct to describe myself as a heavy reader of your blog? I like it so much! I think I would still continue to improve myself even by just being a “light reader” with the hope that I may catch useful vocabularies when I started making serial stories. All of this for my baby!

    1. Raira, I’m so glad my site is interesting and useful to you. Because reading is at the heart of acquiring higher levels of language proficiency, I would encourage you to build a good home library of books in English (see How Many Books Do You Have In Your Home?) and read aloud to your child every day. Over time, the impact will be enormously positive.

      Keep up your good efforts, Raira! I’m cheering for you!

  2. Yes! I am planning to do that! Maybe a bookshelf that we will call his library! I think he would be happy about the idea of having his own library. Now, I am searching for what books to put into it! I believe in what you say that each child regarding of their age has different levels and interest. I mean, “what to read when”! Could you please direct me to that link of yours again! I already forgot where did I find it!

    1. Raira, see Good Books on Reading Aloud for useful books that contain recommended titles. You’ll also find my own suggestions within the category Books for Kids.

      Also, I don’t know where you live, but I suggest visiting your local library. They may have a collection of children’s books in English. In addition to the many books on our shelves at home, I’ve been making a weekly trip to the public library since my kids were small.

  3. When I was a child, I had hundreds and hundreds of books. My mother bought them for me constantly and I read them all (okay, except for a few that were real misses). I had dozens of chapter book series, non-fiction and fiction, long and short, everything. The problem is, they are all in English, instead of in my minority language. My mother wants to give us all of them, but I am worried it will be impossible for my language to compete with them. Do you have any thoughts about this, Adam?

    1. Kudos to your mother for buying you so many books, and to you for being such a bookworm! Without knowing the full details of your situation, it’s a little hard to offer advice, but if you can store the books somewhere, out of sight, then you can decide, as needed, if or when they might be effectively used within your family. Your higher priority, of course, should be on creating a rich home environment in the minority tongue with ample books and other resources in this language.

  4. When children read for pleasure, they pick up the skills necessary to be critical and thoughtful of the world around them, as well as becoming familiar with grammar and developing writing skills. Furthermore, the power of reading also extends to giving children insight into their own social, emotional life and the social and emotional lives of others.

    Great article, thank you.

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Welcome to Bilingual Monkeys!

I’m Adam Beck, the founder of this blog and The Bilingual Zoo, a lively worldwide forum for parents raising bilingual or multilingual kids. I’m also the author of the popular books Maximize Your Child’s Bilingual Ability and Bilingual Success Stories Around the World. I’ve been an educator and writer in this field for 25 years as well as the parent of two bilingual children, now 19 and 16. I hope my work can help empower the success of your bilingual journey.

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